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He was convicted and subsequently hanged for his participation in the murder, aged His legacy prompted youth in India to begin fighting for Indian independence and he continues to be a youth idol in modern India. Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November — 27 May was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics for much of the 20th century. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and ruled India from its establishment as an independent nation in until his death in office in During his lifetime, he was popularly known as Pandit Nehru or as Panditji, while many Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru.

Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge and the Inner Temple where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics which eventually replaced his legal practice. Bhimrao Ambedkar 14 April — 6 December , popularly known as Babasaheb. He was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Modern Buddhist Movement and campaigned against social discrimination against Untouchables Dalits , women and labour.

In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. In he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of Dalits.

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Forgot password? Azad Hind , an Indian provisional government , had been established in Singapore in , and was supported by Japan. In response, Congress helped form the INA Defence Committee , which assembled a legal team to defend the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. After Indian independence in , the Indian National Congress became the dominant political party in the country. In , in the first general election held after Independence, the party swept to power in the national parliament and most state legislatures.

It held power nationally until , when it was defeated by the Janata coalition. It returned to power in and ruled until , when it was once again defeated. The party formed the government in at the head of a coalition, as well as in and , when it led the United Progressive Alliance. During this period the Congress remained centre-left in its social policies while steadily shifting from a socialist to a neoliberal economic outlook.

A post- partition successor to the party survived as the Pakistan National Congress , a party which represented the rights of religious minorities in the state. The party's support was strongest in the Bengali-speaking province of East Pakistan. After the Bangladeshi War of Independence, it became known as the Bangladeshi National Congress , but was dissolved in by the government. From until his death in , Jawaharlal Nehru was the paramount leader of the party.

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Congress gained power in landslide victories in the general elections of —52, , and During his period in office, there were four known assassination attempts on Nehru. The second was by a knife-wielding rickshaw-puller in Maharashtra in In , Nehru died because of an aortic dissection , raising questions about the party's future. There were differences among the top leadership of the Congress regarding the future of the party which makes lot of issues within the party. Kamaraj became the president of the All India Congress Committee in during the last year of Nehru's life.

In the Congress lost popularity following the defeat in the Indo-Chinese war of To revitalize the party, Kamraj proposed the Kamaraj Plan to Nehru that encouraged six Congress chief ministers including himself and six senior cabinet ministers to resign to take up party work. Indira Gandhi wanted to use a populist agenda in order to mobilize popular support for the party while Kamraj and Desai stood for a more right-wing agenda. In the aftermath of the Sino-Indian War of , and the formation of military ties between China and Pakistan, Shastri's government expanded the defence budget of India's armed forces.

He also promoted the White Revolution—a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk by creating the National Dairy Development Board. Shastri became a national hero following victory in the Indo-Pakistani War of Some people used to it the Original Congress. Once again, politician K. Kamaraj was instrumental in achieving this result. In , following a poor performance in the general election, Indira Gandhi started moving towards the political left. In mid, she was involved in a dispute with senior party leaders on a number of issues. The two major issues were Gandhi supporting the independent candidate, V.

Giri , rather than the official Congress party candidate, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy , for the vacant post of the President of India. Gandhi's abrupt nationalization of the 14 biggest banks in India, which resulted in the resignation of the finance minister, Morarji Desai. Later in the year, the Congress party president, S. Nijalingappa , expelled her from the party for indiscipline.


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  8. Gandhi as a counter-move launched her own faction of the INC. Gandhi's faction, called Congress R , was supported by most of the Congress MPs while the original party had the support of only 65 MPs. The "I" in the name of congress stood for Indira. It soon came to be known as the New Congress. After the separation of the two parties, there was also a dispute about the party logo. The "Old Congress" retained the party symbol of a pair of bullocks carrying a yoke while Indira's breakaway faction were given a new symbol of a cow with suckling calf by the Election Commission as the party election symbol.

    The split occurred when, in , a united opposition under the banner of Samyukt Vidhayak Dal , won control over several states in the Hindi Belt. The New Congress Party's popular support began to wane in the mids. From , Gandhi's government grew increasingly more authoritarian and unrest among the opposition grew. On 12 June , the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha , the lower house of India's parliament, void on the grounds of electoral malpractice. She moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest.

    In response to increasing disorder and lawlessness, Gandhi's cabinet and government recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a State of Emergency , which he did on 25 June based on the provisions of Article of the Constitution. During the nineteen-month emergency, widespread oppression and abuse of power by Gandhi's unelected younger son and political heir Sanjay Gandhi and his close associates occurred.

    Gandhi lost her seat to her Janata opponent Raj Narain. During the next year, her new party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition. In November , Gandhi regained a parliamentary seat.

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    However, the designation I was only dropped in During Gandhi's new term as prime minister, her youngest son Sanjay died in an aeroplane crash in June Gradually, Indira Gandhi's politics and outlook grew more authoritarian and autocratic, and she became the central figure within the Congress Party. As prime minister, she became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralization of power. Gandhi's term as prime minister also saw increasing turmoil in Punjab , with demands for Sikh autonomy by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his militant followers.

    This event is known as Operation Blue Star. On 31 October , two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh , shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the prime minister's residence in response to her authorisation of Operation Blue Star. In , Indira Gandhi's son Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of Congress, and went on to become prime minister upon her assassination.

    After his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual. In , an Indian court convicted 26 people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi. Rajiv Gandhi was succeeded as party leader by P. Narasimha Rao , who was elected prime minister in June His administration oversaw major economic change and experienced several home incidents that affected India's national security. Future prime ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh continued the economic reform policies begun by Rao's government. Rao accelerated the dismantling of the Licence Raj, reversing the socialist policies of previous governments.

    By , the party's image was suffering from allegations of corruption, and in elections that year, Congress was reduced to seats, its lowest number in the Lok Sabha to that point. Rao later resigned as prime minister and, in September, as party president. The general election saw Congress win seats in the Lok Sabha, its lowest tally until then. She had previously declined offers to become actively involved in party affairs, and had stayed away from politics.

    After her election as party leader, a section of the party that objected to the choice because of her Italian ethnicity broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party NCP , led by Sharad Pawar. The breakaway faction commanded strong support in the state of Maharashtra and limited support elsewhere. The remainder continued to be known as the Indian National Congress. Sonia Gandhi struggled to revive the party in her early years as its president; she was under continuous scrutiny for her foreign birth and lack of political acumen. In the snap elections called by the National Democratic Alliance NDA government in , Congress' tally further plummeted to just seats.

    In the intervening years, the party was successful at various legislative assembly elections; at one point, Congress ruled 15 states. With the subsequent support of the communist front, Congress won a majority and formed a new government. Despite massive support from within the party, Gandhi declined the post of prime minister, choosing to appoint Manmohan Singh instead.