However, Brent et al. By contrast, in girls, victimization, but not bullying, was associated with suicide attempts, even after adjusting for conduct disorder and depression [ 21 ]. Others reported that boys who were both bullies and victims of bullying had a higher likelihood of suicidal behavior than boys who were only victims [ 43 ]. In girls, victims of bullying were more likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors than those who were neither bullies nor victims [ 43 ]. Today, many youth are subject to cyber-bullyingthrough Email, cell phone texting, and internet social sites, perpetrated by other adolescents or even adults [ 41 ].
These findings call for strenuous efforts by school authorities to prevent bullying and the formulation of interventions to minimize its deleterious effects, particularly regarding cyber-bullying. Social learning may be an important factor in both familial and nonfamilial transmission of suicidal behaviors.
The concept of suicide contagion is based on the infective disease model and assumes that a suicidal behavior by one person may facilitate the occurrence of subsequent, similar behaviors by others [ 44 ].
The process is implemented via imitation. Theories of imitation have been postulated to explain clustering of suicides and DSHbehaviors. A large body of research in the last 10 years clearly demonstrated that extensive newspaper and television coverage of suicide is associated with a significant increase in the rate of suicide [ 45 ]. The magnitude of the increase is proportional to the amount, duration, and prominence of the media coverage. As a result, the book was banned in many European countries. Today, the increasing popularity of the Internet as a source of information has raised concerns about the danger of sites that promote suicide and sites set up by strangers who form suicide pacts [ 46 ].
Further empirical research is needed to clarify their effects. By the same token, however, the media may also serve as an effective means for preventing suicide contagion. More efforts should be directed at presenting stories of suicide, especially by persons admired by youth, in a different light. Despite the heavy burden that adolescent suicidal behaviour imposes on individuals and communities, little is known about effective preventive measures.
Of the few studies that have investigated such interventions, most were targeted at adults and reported only moderate effectiveness [ 48 ]. This approach is noteworthy because the latest research suggests that most suicidal youth do not receive mental health careor even tell an adult about their suicidal thoughts or behaviors [ 49 ].
Furthermore, there are many innovative prevention efforts directed at ethnic minorities in which suicidal behavior has become epidemic, such as native Indians of Arizona [ 50 ] and the Inuit in Canada [ 51 ]. Further research is needed to understand the phenomenology of suicidal behaviors among ethnic minority populations [ 13 ], including the presentations of suicidal behavior, meanings of suicidal behavior in different cultures, risk factors particular to these groups and their correlates, applicability of known risk factors in other populations, such as depression, and preventive mechanisms.
Suicide remains an important clinical problem and a major cause of death in young people. The role of social factors in suicidal behavior is long established, and there is compelling evidence that they may be at least as prominent as genetic factors. Knowledge on effective interventions in adolescents who attempt suicide, cause DSH, or have suicidal ideations is still extremely limited, and methodologically rigorous trials are required.
Advancing our understanding of cultural and sociological issues underlying suicidal behavior is critical to prevention in diverse societies.
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In addition, the identification of more specific risk factors will help clinicians predict suicidality and target preventive treatment. In this context, the concepts propagated by the classical theories of Durkheim and Erickson are still highly relevant today. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Purpose : The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, social, cultural, risk factors, suicide, bullying. Introduction Knowledge of the risk factors for suicidal behavior in youth has burgeoned during the past 20 years.
Social Theories of Suicide According to several major theorists in the field of suicidology, social and cultural variables need to be taken into account in the understanding of suicide. Epidemiology: Cultural and Ethnic Issues Adolescent suicidal behaviors are widespread and produce a significant burden on healthcare systems. Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior Major established risk factors for suicide in youth include a previous suicide attempt, availability of lethal means, and family discord [ 19 ]. Gender In Western countries, the rates of suicide across ethnicities are higher in adolescent boys than adolescent girls ratio of , whereas the rates of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide are higher in girls ratio of [ 20 ].
Cause and Effect of Suicide in our Society
Family Factors Research has pointed to the importance of the family environment as a predictor of suicidal behavior among adolescents. Change of Residence and Socioeconomic Class Qin et al. Sexual Orientation Youth who report same-sex sexual orientation are at greater risk than their peers to attempt suicide, and this risk persists even after controlling for other suicide risk factors [ 38 ].
Alcohol and Drugs Alcohol abuse is known to be associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior and suicide death among adolescents. Bullying Klomek et al. Suicide Contagion Social learning may be an important factor in both familial and nonfamilial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Preventive Measures Despite the heavy burden that adolescent suicidal behaviour imposes on individuals and communities, little is known about effective preventive measures.
Conclusions Suicide remains an important clinical problem and a major cause of death in young people. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1.
Causes Of Suicide Essay Examples | Kibin
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The Cause And Effect Of The Teen Suicide Essay
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